1) T.A Re: Topic 1 DQ 1
There are several problems we have in our health care system, but we are also fortunate to have a system in place where health care is available to all. A major issue we have is the cost of health care. According to the text book written by Sarafino & Smith (2017), the cost of health care has risen from 5% to 17.4%. Factors involving the increase can include reasons such as significant rise in individuals needing/using health care, non-insured individuals who use medical resources, and something called health care provider systems. You may or may not have a state which has one of these systems in place; I do. There is a local hospital by me who has monopolized over the state of Illinois. Central Illinois is widely owned by this hospital. Just as you may have a Walgreen's or CVS on every corner, we have a Clinic or hospital. When these systems are allowed to flourish, they get to set their prices/cost of care, which in turn gets passed down to the patients and the insurance companies (Varanini, 2020). They even have their own insurance group. Most employers around here offer you this insurance because almost everything else is out of network. We have just recently received another hospital company, which in turn is allowing not only another option of care, but a means of negotiations on health care cost. Where there is illness and injuries, there is a need for psychologist. As our populations increases, the number of injuries and illnesses will correspond. Which leads me to another issue we are having.
We are seeing a pandemic like no other hit our country and causing havoc on our health care system. We have over worked, under staffed hospitals taking care of mass number of individuals. Some nurses and doctors are seeing more deaths than they have their entire careers. Unfortunately, some nurses and doctors are unable to cope with the stress and have opted to end their lives by suicide. Those who have continued to live through this pandemic on the front lines have endured anxiety, depression, PTSD, and sleep deprivation (Ariapooran & Amirimanesh, 2020). Do we even have enough qualified psychologist to handle the number of health care workers needing mental health care during this time of the pandemic?
Lastly, a problem our health care system is currently having is drug overdose cases due to addiction of opioids. Within the last twenty years, over 600,000 Americans died due to opioid overdose. It was calculated that more than 780,000 will have perished by 2020 (Hodge, Wetter, Chronister, Hess, & Piatt, 2017). In 2016 alone, over 92 million dollars was spent on combating the opioid epidemic. It is also noted that Medicaid, who pays for uninsured individuals medical, cost spent over 930 million dollars in 2016 to pay for health care needs for opioid addicted patients (Hodge, Wetter, Chronister, Hess, & Piatt, 2017). I can not believe people are taking these drugs knowing they will become addicted, rather, many of them take the medications which are prescribed to them by their doctors. They trust their physicians are giving them medications to help with pain and to feel better. Perhaps doctors need to screen the patients better and opt on other means of controlling pain than prescription medications.
Have a wonderful day!
Hodge, J. . J. G., Wetter, S. A., Chronister, D., Hess, A., & Piatt, J. (2017). Redefining Public Health Emergencies: The Opioid Epidemic. Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 58(1), 1–15.
Said Ariapooran, & Marzieh Amirimanesh. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal ideation of Nurses in the Outbreak of COVID-19: The Role of Demographic Variables. Majallah-i Dānishgāh-i ̒ulūm-i Pizishkī-i Arāk, 23(5), 724–739.
Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9thed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486
Varanini, E. E. (2020). Addressing the Red Queen Problem: A Proposal for Pursuing Antitrust Challenges to Cross-Market Mergers in Health Care Systems. Antitrust Law Journal, 83(2), 509–526.
2) G.S Re: Topic 1 DQ 1
Hello Ms. Floren and Class,
In today's world view there are many factors why people are having hardship when it comes to health care, there are many factors that people are dying or having health issue that the health care system is facing nowadays, the rapid rising of problems is the high cost of medical insurance and or an individual cannot afford to have insurance that burden them to seek medical care. One current problem in thee health care system is the poor recognition of th problem of dementia and other mental health problem,under diagnosis and stigma cause significant problems for individual and their families at all income level(ADI,2009),overtime,dementia in the aging population will place a massive burden on the population in terms of human and monetary resources.
Second current problem in health care system is the cost of some procedure for diagnostic test, an example would be having multiple chronic symptoms and test is needed to be done to which an individual has to pay some of the co-pay or no insurance at all, this is an issue that can add to health problems to an individual due to out of pocket pay with over charging fee.That some refuse to have the test done due to the high cost(Loge & Sorrell,2010).
Third current problem in the health care system is the highest rates of Alcohol abstinence in the nation seeking for a therapy can be overwhelmed to an individual that is unable to afford therapy or to have a proper therapy treatment, due to the high cost to seek help in a program some need more assistance to get the help they need when seeking a therapy. In today's issue of the health care there are many who are suffering that can not seek any medical attention, this should be look at and needs to be resolve on how an individual can seek any medical help, another example is that for a family of 3 I'm paying over $1000 every month and not even included the dental and eye vision, so in order for me to get medical attention I have to carry the burden of paying the amount every month, The health care system become more problem rather than helpful to a person.
Loge J, & Sorrell JM. (2010). Implications of an aging population for mental health nurses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(9), 15–18. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3928/02793695-20100730-02
Fernández, A. A., Martín, Á. P., Martínez, M. I., Bustillo, M. A., Barbado Hernández, F. J., Labrado, J. de la C., Peñas, R. D.-D., Rivas, E. G., Delgado, C. P., Redondo, J. R., & Ramón Giménez, J. R. (2009). Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 9, 1–11. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-S1-S1
Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486
3) C.N Re: Topic 1 DQ 1
Quality of Care is one of the obvious considerations taken into count when one is looking for a doctor. However, many also settle for less quality because they think they have too. Mentally this can be so exhausting and essentially not get your needs met, “it doesn’t help that most Americans are likely to get a wrong or delayed diagnosis at least once in their life” (Medifind,2021). Which then can have an effect on your psychological well-being.
Yoga used in healthcare, according to Wiles,Va Puymbroek, Crowe and Schmid (2021), yoga was an “exploratory approach” used in recreational therapy. This approach quickly spread and now has acquired many participants. It boosts your ability to focus, which to some has provided psychological mental clarity. It has other therapeutic health benefits, so the psychological aspect is only one of them
Lack of affordability for insurance coverage, people are experiencing psychological distress due to not being able to afford quality care, or health insurance at all. So unable to obtain quality care brings them to misdiagnosis or again delayed diagnosis, eventually driving them to end up in the emergency room accumulating more costs that they cannot afford. Being able to afford mental health services prevents many from not being able to actually get them. “To be able to provide early- stage diagnosis over all”(Dedania & Gonzales, 2019), sometimes cannot be attainable for some different races, such as immigrants and Native Americans.
Dedania, R., & gonzales, g. (2019). Disparities in access to health care among us-born and foreign-born us Adults by mental health status, 2013–2016. american Journal of public health, 109, S221–S227.
Wiles, a. k., van puymbroeck, m., crowe, b. m., & schmid, a. a. (2021). An investigation into the use of yoga in recreational therapy practice. therapeutic recreation journal, 55(1), 78–96.
4) T.A Re: Topic 1 DQ 2
Where there are benefits, there will also be dilemmas. The use of placebos in research has been an argument for a very long time. Some researchers proclaim the good of placebos, and others will argue the downfalls of using them. Perhaps one argument to view is the ethics of using a placebo. The Declaration of Helinski has been revised many times, however, there has been one constant within this "gold standard," (Vrhovac, 2004) and that is patients must get "the best treatment." How is a patient receiving the best treatment if they are not really getting any medication at all? How is a patient with dementia getting a chance of becoming lucid if s(he) is not getting the real medicine to begin with? Who decides one person is more valuable than the other to get the medicine? Of course we know why the placebo is used in controlled clinical trials, but good luck getting the individual or their loved ones to understand the reasons. To many, they will see it unfair, unjust, and unethical. The use of a placebo can also cause less reliable calculations of the scientific value (Vrhovac, 2004). Therefore, some medical statistics could be misleading due to the placebo-effect. The placebo-effect occurs when a patient who receives the placebo believes they are receiving the actual medicine and begin to improve on their symptoms on their own. Therefore, the modulator of expectancy will always be off in one way or another. This means, what the researchers expect from the current results will change in the future when the placebo is not being used, rather a real drug. From a psychological viewpoint, this is not good. We also have the role of deception when using a placebo, which can also lead to psychological dilemmas. You have a higher risk of causing the patient to lose trust in the physician, as well as gray areas on the inform consent issue (Asai & Kadooka, 2013).
I personally view the use of placebos in a positive view, and find they can be more beneficial than destructive. I feel studies are meant to be duplicated to help the validities. Therefore, researchers have an open opportunity to see how certain medications or treatments are in either favor of their theory or not when placebos were used in a prior study.
Have a great day!
Asai, A., & Kadooka, Y. (2013). Reexamination of the ethics of placebo use in clinical practice. Bioethics, 27(4), 186–193. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01943.x
Krol, F. J., Hagin, M., Vieta, E., Harazi, R., Lotan, A., Strous, R. D., Lerer, B., & Popovic, D. (2020). Placebo—to be or not to be? Are there really alternatives to placebo-controlled trials? European Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 1–11. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2019.12.117
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