For this reflection you have two options from chapter 8. CHOOSE ONLY ONE!!!
1. The lecture video talks about 4 ways to increase self esteem. Using book info and lecture video, recap 4 ways to increase self esteem and then tell how a school district could use these to embrace and create a socially positive environment for all students.
2. Academically, the book mentions two academic mind sets. Growth and fixed. Using the book AND an outside resource, differentiate or tell the difference between the two models and which mindset most mimics your schooling environment. Be specific.
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Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood
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• Emotional and personality development
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Emotional and Personality Development
• The self
• Emotional development
• Moral development
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The Self 1
Development of self-understanding
• During middle and late childhood
• Children 8 to 11 describe themselves in terms of psychological characteristics and traits.
• Children recognize social characteristics of the self.
• Self-description increasingly involves social comparison.
• Perspective taking: social cognitive process involved in assuming the perspective of others and understanding their thoughts and feelings
• Children become skeptical of others’ claims.
• Without good perspective taking skills, more likely to be oppositional, have difficultly with relationships
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The Self 2 Self-esteem and self-concept: foundations start with quality parent-child interactions
• Self-esteem: global evaluations of the self
• Referred to as self-worth or self-image
• Self-concept: domain-specific evaluations of the self
Children with high self-esteem
• May not do better in school; inflated self-esteem can distort ability
• Have greater initiative
• Can be positive or negative
Children with low self-esteem
• Linked to obesity, anxiety, depression, suicide, and delinquency
• Can be either accurate or distorted self-perception
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The Self 3
Self-efficacy: belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
• Characterized by deliberate efforts to manage one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts
• Leads to increased social competence and achievement
Industry versus inferiority
• Industry: children become interested in how things are made and work, receive parental encouragement
• Parents who see children’s efforts as mischief or making a mess encourage inferiority
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Emotional Development 1
• Improved emotional understanding
• Increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation
• Increased awareness of the events leading to emotional reactions
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Emotional Development 2
• Ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions
• Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings
• Capacity for genuine empathy
©Elizabeth D. Herman/The New York Times/Redux
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Emotional Development 3
Social-Emotional Education Programs
• Committee for Children and the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL)
• Developed programs to improve children’s lives
• Second Step: teaches social, cognitive and emotional skills
• Pre-K through 8th grade, specialized for each developmental stage
• CASEL: Targets core social and emotional learning domains
• Social awareness
• Relationship skills
• Responsible decision making
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Emotional Development 4
Coping with stress
• Older children generate more coping alternatives to stressful situations.
• Outcomes for children who experience disasters
• Acute stress reactions
• Panic disorder
• Post-traumatic stress disorder
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Emotional Development 5
Child and adolescent psychiatrists help youth cope with stress and trauma, such as witnessing school shootings.
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Moral Development 1
Kohlberg’s Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning
• Morality not internalized
• Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality
• Moral decisions are based on fear of punishment.
• Children obey because adults tell them to.
• Stage 2: Individuals, Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange
• Individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same. What is right involves equal exchange.
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Moral Development 2
Kohlberg’s Level 2: Conventional Reasoning
• Individuals abide by internal and external standards, for example, parents, law
• Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
• Trust, caring, and loyalty to others valued as a basis for moral judgments
• Stage 4: Social System Morality
• Moral judgments based on understanding, social order, law, justice, duty
Kohlberg’s Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning
• Morality is more internal
• Stage 5: Social contract or utility and individual rights
• Stage 6: Universal ethical principles
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Moral Development 3
Influences on Kohlberg’s stages
• Cognitive development
• Experiences dealing with moral questions and moral conflicts
• Peer interaction and perspective taking
Harvard University Archives, UAV 605.295.8, Box 7, Kohlberg
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Moral Development 4
• Moral thought and behavior
• Too much emphasis on thought and not enough emphasis on behavior
• Conscious/Deliberate Versus Unconscious/ Automatic
• Moral behavior can be automatic.
• Culture and moral reasoning
• Theory is culturally biased.
• Need to address issues including decline of postconventional moral reasoning to lowest level, or personal interests
• Some researchers emphasize the need to deal with increasing possible temptations and wrongdoings in increasingly complex social world
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Moral Development 5
• The Role of Emotion
• Emotion strongly influences morality, intuitive feelings of right and wrong
• Families and moral development
• Argued that parents’ moral values and actions influence children’s development of moral reasoning
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Moral Development 6
Gender and the care perspective
• Justice perspective: focuses on rights of individual and on which individuals independently make moral decisions
• Care perspective: views people in terms of connectedness with others
• Emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, concern for others
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Moral Development 7
Domain theory: moral, social conventional, personal reasoning
• Domain theory of moral development: different domains of social knowledge and reasoning
• Moral, social conventional, and personal domains
• Social conventional reasoning: focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus in order to control behavior and maintain the social system
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Moral Development 8
• Studies behavioral aspects of moral development
Moral personality: components include
• Moral identity
• Moral character
• Moral exemplars
Gender and the Care Perspective
• Moral perspective viewing people in terms connectedness with others
• Emphasis on
• Interpersonal communication
• Relationships, and concern for others
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Gender stereotypes: broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females
Gender similarities and differences
• Physical development
• Cognitive development
• Socioemotional development
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• Gender differences
• Verbal skills – girls better
• No difference in math
• Visuospatial skills – some girls better
• Writing skills – girls better
• Achievement – girls better, but complex issue
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• Aggression: boys physically, girls verbally
• Emotion: overall small differences
• Girls can recognize nonverbal emotions.
• Girls show more sympathy, internalize emotions, self-regulate
• Prosocial behavior: girls more prosocial, empathic
Gender in context
• Traits people display may vary with the situation
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• Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Relationships
• Parents as Managers
• Attachment in Families
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Developmental changes in parent-child relationships
• Parents spend less time with children during middle and late childhood.
• Parents support and stimulate children’s academic achievement.
• Parents use less physical forms of punishment as children age.
• Coregulation starts as some control is transferred from parent to child.
• Children engage in moment-to-moment self-regulation.
• Children move toward autonomy starting around age 12.
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Parents as managers
• Parents manage children’s opportunities, monitor behavior, and initiate social contact; more mother’s role than father’s
• Important to maintain a structured and organized family environment
• Positively related to students’ grades and self-responsibility, and negatively to school-related problems
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Attachment in families
• Becomes more sophisticated
• Children spend less time with parents.
• Social worlds expand.
• Secure attachment
• Associated with lower levels of
• Internalized symptoms
• Associated with higher levels of
• Emotional regulation
• Recognizing emotions
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• Remarriages involving children has grown in recent years.
• Types of stepfamily structure
• Blended or complex
©Todd Wright/Blend Images/Getty Images
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• Developmental Changes
• Peer Status
• Social Cognition
©Design Pics/Don Hammond
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• Reciprocity becomes important in peer interchanges.
• Size of peer group increases.
• Peer interaction is less closely supervised by adults.
• Children’s preference for same-sex peer groups increases.
Sociometric status: extent to which children are liked/disliked by peer group
• Popular children: frequently nominated as a best friend and rarely disliked by peers
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• Average children: receive an average number of both positive and negative peer nominations
• Neglected children: infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers
• Rejected children: infrequently nominated as a best friend and actively disliked by peers
• Controversial children: frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and also disliked by peers
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Social cognition: thoughts about social matters
• Important for understanding peer relationships
• Steps children go through in processing social information
• Attend to social cues
• Attribute intent through interpretation
• Establish social goals
• Access behavioral scripts from memory
• Generate problem-solving strategies
• Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies
• Make decisions and enact behavior
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• Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful
• Most likely to be bullied: boys, anxious, awkward, withdrawn, and younger middle school students
• Bullied children report loneliness, difficulty making friends
• Cause of concern: peer bullying and cyber bullying
• Outcomes of bullying
• Low-self esteem, depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide
• As adults, anxiety, depression, agoraphobia and mental health services
• Poverty, family support or lack thereof, school, and peer groups
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Friendship: plays important role in emotional well-being and academic success
• Typically characterized by similarity
• Functions of Friendships
• Physical support
• Ego support
• Social comparison
• Affection and intimacy
• Intimacy in friendships: self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts
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Bullying Behaviors among U.S. Youth
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• Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning
• Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Culture
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Contemporary approaches to student learning
• Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
• Constructivist approach: learner-centered approach emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their own knowledge and understanding with guidance from a teacher
• Direct-instruction approach: structured, teacher-centered approach characterized by
• Teacher direction and control
• Mastery of academic skills
• High expectations for students’ progress
• Maximum time spent on learning tasks
• Efforts to keep negative effects to a minimum
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• No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation being replaced
• Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) implemented during the 2017 to 2018 school year
• Statewide standardized testing laws changing, as are measurements for tracking success
• States can opt out of Common Core standards
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Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
• Students from low-income, ethnic minority backgrounds have more difficulties in school and are not overcoming barriers to achievement.
• U.S. students have lower achievement in math and science than a number of other countries.
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Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
• Education of students from low-income backgrounds
• Face more barriers to learning
• Schools in low-income area tend to have
• More students with low achievement test scores
• Low graduation rates
• Smaller percentages of students going to college
• Young teachers with less experience
• Fewer resources, including decent buildings
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Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
• Ethnicity in schools
• Strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students
• Turn the class into a jigsaw classroom
• Encourage students to have positive personal contact with diverse other students
• Reduce bias
• View school and community as a team
• Be a competent cultural mediator
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Cross-cultural comparisons of achievement
• 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) study found that out of 48 countries, American children placed
• 11th in 4th grade math
• 8th in 4th grade science
• Asian teachers spend more time teaching math than American teachers
• Asian children spend more days/year in school than American children
Mindset: cognitive view individuals develop for themselves
• Fixed mindset
• Growth mindset
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Mothers’ Beliefs About the Factors Responsible for Children’s Math Achievement in Three
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